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Science About the True Nature of Earth and Universe
"The purpose of science is to discover the true nature of Earth and Universe and to share that knowledge with people everywhere. That's what I do." -- J. Marvin Herndon, Ph.D.
 
Humans tend to be creatures of habit, plodding along through time, eagerly looking toward the future, but rarely looking with question at circumstances from the past which have set them on their present course. Much of astrophysics and geophysics has been built upon flawed ideas that are 40 or more years old. J. Marvin Herndon, pictured at left, has discovered and corrected past flaws. The consequence is a whole different way of understanding Earth and Universe that is securely anchored to the properties of matter. Sharing that understanding is what this website is all about.

J. Marvin Herndon's Scientific Discoveries and Insights with Descriptions, References, and Download Links (click here)

Current Biography profile of J. Marvin Herndon (click here)

Email link: J. Marvin Herndon       Brief Biography: (click here)
Nuclear Fission Georeactor at Earth's Center
J. Marvin Herndon's discovery of the highly reduced, low-oxygen, chemical composition of Earth's interior led to the understanding of why substantial quantities of uranium would occur in Earth's core, settle by the action of gravity to the center of the Earth, and begin to function as a natural nuclear reactor. He demonstrated the feasibility  of a natural nuclear fission reactor, called the georeactor, at Earth's center and provided evidence of its existence. For more details, references, and links to download scientific papers, please check out the following WebPages:
WebPage: Herndon's Nuclear Georeactor
(click here)
WebPage: Frequently Asked Questions about Earth's Georeactor (click here)
Many first learned about the georeactor from the cover feature of the August 2002 issue of Discover magazine, entitled "Nuclear Planet". For a link to that article,
click here
Georeactor Origin of Earth's Magnetic Field
For more than six decades, scientists have thought that the Earth's magnetic field is generated by convection-driven dynamo-action in the Earth's fluid core. Then, J. Marvin Herndon demonstrated that sustained convection, and hence dynamo-action, in the Earth's fluid core is physically impossible, but not physically impossible in the georeactor. The georeactor is thus the energy source and the place of dynamo production of the geomagnetic field. Significantly, the georeactor is only one ten-millionth as massive as the Earth's core, meaning that changes in the geomagnetic field, such as reversals, can take place much more rapidly than previously thought.

New Review Article:
Terracentric Nuclear Reactor Georeactor (click here for pdf) 
Current Science, 2014, 106(4), 528-541.

WebPages:
Physical Impossibility of Earth-core Convection (click here)

Convection-driven Dynamo-action in the Georeactor as the Origin of the Geomagnetic Field (click here)

Important Paper: J. Marvin Herndon, Nuclear georeactor generation of the Earth's geomagnetic field. (click here for pdf)
,
Current Science, 2007, 93,1485-1487.
For Teachers:
Teaching Students to Question Earth-Core Convection (click here)
YouTube Video:
Origin of Earth's Magnetic Field (click here) Download .mp4 video file (click here)
 
New eBook: Origin of the Geomagnetic Field: Consequence of Earth's Early Formation as a Jupiter-Like Gas Giant    Thinker Media
Available from   Amazon.com and BarnsandNoble.com and Kobo.com and iTunes
Earth's Interior Composition
The textbook description of Earth's interior is based upon a 1940's incorrect idea, namely, that the Earth resembles an ordinary chondrite meteorite, and was developed on the basis of physics without chemistry. J. Marvin Herndon has corrected that, showing: (1) Only an enstatite chondrite, not an ordinary chondrite, has the sufficient relative amount of iron-alloy for Earth's massive core; and, (2) The relative masses of enstatite chondrite minerals match precisely corresponding masses of deep-Earth parts. In doing so, Herndon united chemical and physical inferences for Earth-matter below the depth of 660 km and provided a logical and quantitative explanation of the composition of the "seismically rough" matter at D'', the boundary between the Earth's core and lower mantle, as being low density, high melting-point magnesium and calcium sulfides, precipitates from the Earth's core. For details, references, and links to download scientific papers, please check out the following
WebPages:
Herndon's Nickel Silicide Inner Core Composition (click here)
Herndon's Composition of Earth's Interior Parts Below 660 km (click here)
Herndon's Composition of D'' (click here)
Deep-Earth Oxidation State (click here)
Answered Questions about Earth's Interior Composition (click here)
New eBook: What Meteorites Tell Us About Earth    Thinker Media
Available from Amazon.com and BarnsandNoble.com and Kobo.com and iTunes
Important Paper: J. Marvin Herndon, Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth. (click here for pdf)
, Current Science, 2011, 101,1440-1450.
Early Earth Formation as a Jupiter-like Gas Giant
J. Marvin Herndon's concept of Earth originally having formed as a Jupiter-like gas giant leads to a new vision of Earth's internal composition, new geodynamics that correct and extend plate tectonics, powerful new energy sources (stored energy of protoplanetary compression and nuclear fission georeactor energy), georeactor magnetic field generation, and a new concept for the formation of fold-mountain ranges that does not necessitate plate collisions.  In short, a whole new indivisible geoscience paradigm, securely anchored to the properties of matter as described in detail under various relevant headings below on this website.

Figure at left illustrates Earth's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant, from left to right: 1) Earth condensing inside a giant gaseous protoplanet; 2) Fully formed gas-giant Earth; 3) Gases striped away by T-Tauri solar wind; 4) Ancient Compressed Earth (64% present diameter); 5) Present Earth; 6) Jupiter for size comparison. For more details, references, and links to download scientific papers, please check out the following
WebPages:
Earth's Early Formation as a Jupiter-like Gas Giant (click here)
Quick Overview of Herndon's New Indivisible Geoscience Paradigm (click here)


New eBook: Indivisible Earth: Consequences of Earth's Early Formation as a Jupiter-Like Gas Giant, edited by Lynn Margulis,    Thinker Media
Available from Amazon.com  and  BarnsandNoble.com and Kobo.com and iTunes

WebPages:
Tribute to Lynn Margulis (click here)
Preface (click here)
Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics
If animation below stops, please refresh page. For Windows, press F5.
The dynamics of Earth, a direct consequence of its early gas-giant origin, is described by J. Marvin Herndon's new geodynamic theory, Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics, which gives rise to the myriad measurements and observations attributed to plate tectonics, but without requiring mantle convection, as illustrated by the animation at left. Beyond plate tectonics, Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics provides: (1) Two powerful, unanticipated energy sources; (2) An unanticipated means of heat emplacement at the base of the crust; and, (3) A new basis for understanding: (i) Geological activity; (ii) Emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits; (iii) Submarine troughs; (iv) Initiation of submarine canyons; (v) Broadened view of mountain-formation; and (vi) Much more. Significantly, Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics provides a logical and causally related explanation of why only about 41% of Earth's surface consists of continental rock with the balance being ocean floor basalt and provides an explanation of core formation without whole-planet melting with its "magma ocean". For details, references, and links to download scientific papers, please check out the following
WebPages:
Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics (click here)

New Indivisible Geoscience Paradigm (click here)
New eBook: Beyond Plate Tectonics: Consequence of Earth's Early Formation as a Jupiter-Like Gas Giant    Thinker Media
Available from Amazon.com and BarnsandNoble.com and Kobo.com and iTunes

Important  Papers:
J. Marvin Herndon, Whole-Earth decompression dynamics. (click here for pdf), Current Science, 2005, 89,1937-1941.
J. Marvin Herndon, Energy for geodynamics: Mantle decompression thermal tsunami. (click here for pdf), Current Science, 2006, 90,1605-1606.
J. Marvin Herndon, Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth. (click here for pdf), Current Science, 101,1440-1450 (2011).
J. Marvin Herndon, Origin of mountains and primary initiation of submarine canyons: the consequences of Earth's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant. (click here for pdf), Current Science, 2012, 102,1370-1372.
J. Marvin Herndon, Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles (click here for pdf), arXiv 1302.1425
YouTube Videos:
21st Century Earth Dynamics Part 1 (click here) Download .wmv video file Part 1 (click here)
21st Century Earth Dynamics Part 2 (click here) Download .wmv video file Part 2 (click here)
Oil and Gas Exploration Implications

The geology of planet Earth according to Herndon's Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics (WEDD) is primarily the consequence of two processes: (1) The progressive formation of surface cracks to increase surface area in response to decompression-increased planetary volume, and; (2) The progressive adjustment of surface curvature in response to decompression-increased planetary volume. Crustal fragmentation, called rifting, provides all of the crucial components for petroleum-deposit formation: basin, reservoir, source, and seal. Rifting causes the formation of deep basins, as presently occurring in the Afar triangle of Northeastern Africa. Augmented by georeactor heat channeled upwards from deep within the Earth, uplift from sub-surface swelling can sequester sea-flooded lands to form halite evaporite deposits, can lead to dome formation, and can make elevated land susceptible to erosion processes, thus providing sedimentary material for reservoir rock in-filling of basins. Moreover, crustal fragmentation potentially exposes deep basins to sources of abiotic mantle methane and, although still controversial, methane-derived hydrocarbons. For more details, see the following WebPage: WEDD Implications for Petroleum and Natural Gas Origination (click here)

Important Paper: J. Marvin Herndon, Impact of recent discoveries on petroleum and natural gas exploration: Emphasis on India.  Current Science, 2010, 98, 772-779. (click here for pdf)
Origin of Mountains and Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons
Mountain systems characterized by folding have been the intensively studied and debated since the 19th Century. The age-old problem of fold-mountain formation reduces to this question: How can one account for the “extra” surface area, contained within the continental boundaries, that observations reveal folded atop other layers? In plate tectonics continent requisite plate collisions are assumed to "elongate" continents leading to "extra" surface area thought to be necessary for fold-mountain formation. But, as revealed by J. Marvin Herndon, fold-mountain formation is a natural consequence of Earth's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas-giant and does not necessarily require plate collision. Fold-mountain formation results from decompression-caused surface curvature changes, illustrated at right. For more information, see:
WebPage: Origin of Mountains and Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons (click here).   
Important Paper: Origin of mountains and primary initiation of submarine canyons: the consequences of Earth's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant. (click here for pdf) Current Science, 2012, 102, 1370-1372.
Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles

Descriptions of phenomena, events, or processes made on the basis of problematic paradigms can be unreasonably complex (e.g. epicycles) or simply wrong (e.g. ultraviolet catastrophe). Supercontinent cycles, also called Wilson cycles, are, J. Marvin Herndon submits, artificial constructs, like epicycles. Herndon provides the basis for that assertion and describes published considerations from a fundamentally different, new, indivisible geoscience paradigm which obviate the necessity for assuming supercontinent cycles.

WebPage: Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles (click here)

Important Paper: J. Marvin Herndon, Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles (click here for pdf) arXiv 1302.1425

New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

The visionary evolutionist, Lynn Margulis, taught the importance of envisioning the Earth as a whole, rather than as unrelated segments spread among various scientific specialties. In that spirit, and in the broader framework of the Solar System, J. Marvin Herndon presents a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets which differs profoundly from the half-century old, popular, but problematic paradigm. This is a new foundation from which much development is possible.

Important Paper: J. Marvin Herndon, New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm (click here for pdf) Current Science, 2013, 105(4), 450-460.

WebPage: New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm Summary (click here)

Abstract: I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth’s complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth’s present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury’s incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges characterized by folding form to accommodate changes in curvature. The differences between the inner planets are primarily the consequence of different degrees of protoplanetary compression. The internal composition of Mercury is calculated by analogy with Earth. The rationale is provided for Mars potentially having a greater subsurface water reservoir capacity than before realized.

Major Developments Related to the Solar System

For twenty years, NASA-funded scientists were unable to explain in a logical, causally related way why Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune radiate about twice as much energy as they receive from the Sun. Then, J. Marvin Herndon published the concept of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors as the cause.WebPage: Feasibility of Nuclear Reactors in the Giant Outer Planets (click here)

Herndon followed by demonstrating the feasibility and providing evidence for a natural nuclear fission reactor, the georeactor, at the center of Earth as the energy source and production mechanism for the geomagnetic field:

 WebPage: Convection-driven Dynamo-action in the Georeactor as the Origin of the Geomagnetic Field (click here)

Natural nuclear fission reactors may provide reasonable explanations for other "NASA mysteries" including: (1) Our Moon having a soft or molten core; (2) Tiny planet Mercury having a magnetic field; (3) Mars displaying evidence of an ancient magnetic field; (4) Our Moon displaying evidence of an ancient magnetic field; (5) Jupiter’s moon Ganymede having an internally generated magnetic field; (6) Jupiter's moon Io being extremely volcanic; (7) Saturn’s moon Enceladus showing evidence of internal heating; and, (8) Evidence of internal heat generation in Pluto’s moon Charon:

 WebPage: Nature of Planetary Matter (click here)

Important Paper: Herndon, J. M., Nature of planetary matter and magnetic field generation in the Solar System. (click here for pdf) Current Science, 2009, 96, 1033-1039.

J. Marvin Herndon discovered a fundamental relationship using published whole-rock chondrite molar Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios. This relationship admits the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components: one is a relatively undifferentiated, primitive component, oxidized like the CI or C1 carbonaceous chondrites; the other is a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites. Such a picture would seem to explain for the ordinary chondrites, their major element compositions, their intermediate states of oxidation, and their ubiquitous deficiencies of refractory siderophile elements. J. Marvin Herndon suggested that the planetary component of ordinary chondrite formation consists of planet Mercury’s missing complement of elements.

WebPage: Origin of Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites (click here)

Important Paper: Herndon, J. M., Discovery of fundamental mass ratio relationships of whole-rock chondritic major elements: Implications on ordinary chondrite formation and on planet Mercury's composition. (Click here for pdf) Current Science, 2007, 93, 394-399.

MESSENGER Mercury Hollows Explained by Hydrogen Geysers

The MESSENGER spacecraft currently orbiting Mercury sent back images of recent volatile-related activity on Mercury's surface characterized by pits associated with highly reflective surface material that puzzled NASA scientists. In a recent scientific communication, J. Marvin Herndon proposed an explanation. If Mercury's core material condensed from primordial matter at pressures of one atmosphere or more, iron would condense as a liquid capable of dissolving copious amounts of hydrogen. Later, as Mercury's core solidified, the hydrogen would be released and would escape at the surface, producing hydrogen geysers, forming the observed pits, and reducing iron sulfide to metal, thus accounting for the associated highly reflective material.

WebPage: Mercury Hollows Explained by Hydrogen Geysers (click here)

Important Paper: Herndon, J. M., Hydrogen geysers: explanation for observed evidence of geologically recent volatile-related activity on Mercury's surface. (click here for pdf) Current Science, 2012, 103, 361-362.

 

Major Developments Related to Stars, Galaxies, and Exo-planets

More than seven decades ago, scientists thought they had solved the problem of how thermonuclear reactions in stars ignite automatically during formation. Later, although there were indications of serious problems, no one except J. Marvin Herndon, thought to ask "What's wrong with this picture?" and to re-think the problem. The result was realizing that thermonuclear reactions in stars, as in hydrogen bombs, are ignited by nuclear fission. Without fissionable elements to spark ignition, the stars remain dark.

WebPage: Thermonuclear Ignition of Stars and the Nature of Dark Matter (click here)

Important Paper: Herndon, J. M., Planetary and protostellar nuclear fission: Implications for planetary change, stellar ignition and dark matter. (click here for pdf) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1994, A455, 453-461.

YouTube Video: Lighting the Stars (click here) Download .wmv video file (click here)

Before Herndon, the characteristic features of galaxies were inexplicable, because astrophysics had been built upon a flawed foundation for more than seven decades, i.e., the belief that stars automatically ignite upon formation. Now, Herndon points the way toward understanding for the first time galactic luminous star distributions, which are a prominent, common feature of galaxies, making the galaxies appear as they do.

WebPage: J. Marvin Herndon's Structure of Galaxies (click here)

YouTube Video: The Origin of Galaxies (click here) Download .wmv video file (click here)

Important Paper: Herndon, J. M., New concept for internal heat production in hot Jupiter exo-planets, thermonuclear ignition of dark galaxies, and the basis for galactic luminous star distributions. (click here for pdf) Current Science, 2009, 96, 1453-1456.

Methodologies for Making Scientific Discoveries
How, one might ask, is J. Marvin Herndon, able to make so many fundamental scientific discoveries? There are methodologies, not taught in schools, that Herndon shares in his book, Maverick's Earth and Universe click here, and in his new paper, entitled "Inseparability of Science History and Discovery".

WebPage: Time-Travel for Science Revolutions (click here) is a brief synopsis of Herndon's work describing one methodology for making revolutionary scientific discoveries which differs from the frequently discussed variations of the scientific method.

Important Paper:
Herndon, J. M., Inseparability of Science History and Discovery (click here for pdf)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 2010, 1, 25-40.
Science Suppression and Misrepresentation
Science is about truth, not deception, not to the scientific community and not to the general public. Science provides a truth-standard, securely anchored in the properties of matter. J. Marvin Herndon reveals the causes and extent of science corruption, suppression and misrepresentation and he proffers practical solutions.
WebPage: Science Suppression and Misrepresentation (click here)
Special for Teachers and Lovers of Knowledge
+ American Education Failure: The Cause and Cure (click here)

+ Celebrities Remember Their Favorite Teachers (click here)

+
Foreword by J. Marvin Herndon to Mark McMenamin’s Translation from German of Paläogeographie by Franz Kossmat (1924) (click here)

+ Teaching Students to Question Earth-Core Convection (click here)

+ Teaching Earth Dynamics: What’s Wrong with Plate Tectonics Theory? (click here)

+ Teaching About Nature’s Nuclear Reactors (click here)

+ Questioning Astrophysics and Revealing Connections between Stellar Ignition, Luminous Galactic Structures, Dark Matter, Galactic Jets, and the Origin of the Elements (click here)

+ Current Biography Profile of J. Marvin Herndon (click here)

+ Discover Magazine article "Nuclear Planet" and Consequences (click here)

+ Galileo Quotes from The Assayer on Human Nature (click here)

+ The Naysayer (click here)

+ Tribute to Ott Christoph Hilgenberg (click here) Download a copy of his 1933 book Vom wachsenden Erdball.

+ Foreword by J. Marvin Herndon to the book Mars: Perspective Energy and Material Resources (click here)

+ Chapter 20 of the book Mars: Perspective Energy and Material Resources by J. Marvin Herndon "Perspectives on the Utilization of Martian Iron and Carbon Dioxide" (click here)

YouTube Video: Origin of Earth's Magnetic Field (click here) This video is best "watched in high quality" as it contains an experimental demonstration of why long-term convection, and hence dynamo-action, in the fluid core is impossible. Download .mp4 video file (click here).

YouTube Video: Lighting the Stars (click here) The nature of star ignition has been misunderstood since a mistake was made in the 1930s and subsequently built upon J. Marvin Herndon reveals the mistake and describes the rationale for his correcting it. (click here for notes and references)  Download .wmv video file (click here).

YouTube Video: The Origin of Galaxies (click here) Observations arranged into a logical order reveal causal relationships leading to a new fundamental understanding of the origin of galaxies. Download .wmv video file (click here).

YouTube Video: No Mantle Convection!!! (click here) Plate tectonics theory is incomplete, providing no energy source for geodynamics and depends critically on the assumption of mantle convection. This video shows the reason that mantle convection is physically impossible. Download .wmv video file (click here).

YouTube Video: 21st Century Earth Dynamics Part 1 (click here) and 21st Century Earth Dynamics Part 2 (click here) This is a two-part video about a complete, new geodynamic theory, recently published in the scientific literature, called Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics, that unifies and supersedes plate tectonics and Earth expansion theories. Download .wmv video file Part 1 (click here). Download .wmv video file Part 2 (click here).

YouTube Video: Put Teachers on Top (click here) Download .wmv video file (click here).

Historical Background

+ Richard D. Oldham's Discovery of the Earth's Core (click here)

+ Inge Lehmann's Discovery of the Earth's Inner Core (click here)

+ Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann's Discovery of Nuclear Fission and Consequences (click here)

+ Paul K. Kuroda's Feasibility of Natural Nuclear Reactors in Uranium Mines (click here)

+ French Discovery of Fossil Natural Reactors at Oklo, Republic of Gabon (click here)

The scientific foundations described on this website have been published in the following, premiere scientific journals: Naturwissenschaften, Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Current Science, and Earth, Moon, and Planets. When an important new contradiction to prevailing ideas arises in the realm of ethical science, the new concept should be discussed and debated, subjected, if possible, to experimental and/or theoretical verification, refuted if wrong, or otherwise acknowledged. Scientists throughout the world are invited to ascribe to that standard. Secure in the belief that science and truth should go hand in hand with the freedom to learn about and to understand the world in which we live, this web site is dedicated to the dissemination of information to all people: to scientists and, especially, to interested persons everywhere.

© 2009, 2010, 2012, 2013 Transdyne Corporation and J. Marvin Herndon. Except as otherwise marked, the material on this website may be reproduced for educational purposes, provided that no modifications are made and provided the source and J. Marvin Herndon are acknowledged.